Preheat oven to 350. Grease a 9" x 2" round pan and lightly dust with flour, set aside. Springform pans work best for this recipe.
Cake: combine all dry ingredients and whisk together for about one minute until fully combined. Add softened butter chunks and beat on medium-high until consistency resembles a coarse crumb and no large butter pieces remain. Add egg, egg yolk, vanilla and buttermilk. Beat on medium speed until everything is fully incorporated.
Crumb topping: Whisk together all dry ingredients and pour in melted butter. Mix until combined and large crumbs form. Set aside.
Pour batter into prepared baking pan and spread out into an even layer. (It won't look like a lot of batter.) Scatter apple slices on top. Next, sprinkle crumb topping on top, breaking into large pea-sized pieces until no bare spaces remain.
Bake for about 45-55 minutes or until a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean. Start checking cake at 40 minutes and then go from there.
Brown sugar glaze: While cake is cooling, make glaze combining brown sugar, vanilla and water. Mix until smooth and set aside.
Cake is best served warm with a large scoop of vanilla ice cream, if desired! You can drizzle the brown sugar glaze on top of the whole cake or on each individual piece before serving.